AVRUPA BİRLİĞİ (AB) ÜYELİK SÜRECİNDE TÜRKİYE’DE GİRİŞİMCİLİK EKOSİSTEMİNİN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ: KÜRESEL GİRİŞİMCİLİK VE KALKINMA ENDEKSİ (GEDI) YÖNTEMİ İLE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ANALİZ

Hande Karadağ

Özet


Girişimcilik ve ekonomik gelişmişlik arasındaki yakın ilişki nedeniyle girişimsel faaliyetler ve kamu politikalarının bu faaliyetleri teşvik derece ve yöntemleri son dönemlerde araştırmacılar tarafından yoğunlaşılan konular arasında yeralmaktadır. Konu çalışma Avrupa Birliği üyelik sürecinde olan Türkiye’nin girişimci firmalar üretme konusundaki mevcut performansını ekonomik büyüme, girişimcilik politikaları ve girişimcilik faktörlerinin ilişkileri açısından ele almaktadır. Çalışma içeriğinde birliğe üye ülkeler ve Türkiye’nin girişimsel faaliyetleri Küresel Girişimcilik ve Kalkınma Endeksi (GEDI) yöntemindeki üç ana başlık, ondört sütun ve yirmisekiz bireysel ve kurumsal değişken üzerinden  karşılaştırılmış ve ortaya çıkan sonuçlar değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışmada ortaya konan bulgular ışığında zayıf alanların geliştirilmesine yönelik öncelikli politikaların oluşturulması konusundaki önerilere çalışmanın son bölümünde yer verilmiştir.


Anahtar Kelimeler


Girişimcilik, girişimcilik politikası, Türkiye, Avrupa Birliği, GEDI.

Referanslar


Acs, Z.J., Audretsch, D.B., Braunerhjelm, P., & Carlsson, B. (2004). The missing link: The knowledge filter and entrepreneurship in endogenous growth. CEPR Discussion paper No. 4783, Center for Economic Policy Research, London.

Ács, Z. J., Szerb, L., Ortega-Argilés, R., Aidis, R., & Coduras, A. (2015). The regional application of the global entrepreneurship and development index (GEDI): the case of Spain. Regional Studies, 49(12), 1977-1994.

Ács, Z. J., Autio, E., & Szerb, L. (2014). National systems of entrepreneurship: Measurement issues and policy implications. Research Policy, 43(3), 476-494.

Akdeniz, M. B. (2005). KOBİ’lerin Ekonomik ve Sosyal Yapı İçindeki Yerleri, Destekleyici Kurumsal Çevreleri ve Avrupa Birliği’ne Uyum Sürecinde Yeniden Yapılandırılmaları. Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, (13), 69-90.

Audretsch, D.B. & Thurik, R. (2001). What’s new about the new economy? Sources of growth in the managed and entrepreneurial economies. Industrial and Corporate Change, 10(1), 267–315.

Audretsch, D. B. (2004) “Sustaining innovation and growth: Public policy support for entrepreneurship”, Industry and Innovation, Vol. 11 (3), pp. 167-191

Audretsch, D.B., Keilbach, M.C., Lehmann, E.E. (2006). Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Baumol, W.J., Litan, R.E., Schramm, C.J. (2007). Good Capitalism, Bad Capitalism and the Economics of Growth and Prosperity, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Brander,J., Hendricks, K., Amit, R., Whistler, D. (1998). “The engine of growth hypothesis: On the relationship between firm size and employment growth work,” The University of British Columbia working paper.

Cansız, M. (2013). Türkiye'nin yenilikçi girişimcileri: teknoloji geliştirme bölgeleri örneği. TC Kalkınma Bakanlığı.

Coşkun, A. (2006). 21. Yüzyilda Türkiye'nin Sanayi Ve Kobi Stratejileri. 849-864.

Das, S. S., & Das, A. (2014). India shining? A two-wave study of business constraints upon micro and small manufacturing firms in India. International Small Business Journal, 32(2), 180-203.

Dos Santos, L. G. R. C. (2013). Entrepreneurial Policies: Portugal in the context of the European Union.

Dünya Bankası (2011). New Business Registration Database. World Bank, Washington,DC.

European Commission. (2012). Entrepreneurship 2020 action plan. Reigniting the entrepreneurial Spirit in Europe, Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. COM(2012) 795 final, Brussels.

Gallup. (2009). Entrepreneurship in the EU and beyond. In: Flash EurobarometerSeries. European Commission, Brussels.

GEDI 2013 Country Excepts Turkey. http://cepp.gmu.edu/wpcontent/uploads /2012/02/Turkey_ 2013.pdf, erişim tarihi 05.03.2016.

Gilbert, B.A., McDougall, P., & Audretsch, D. (2006). New venture growth: A review and extension. Journal of Management, 32, 926–950.

GİSEP, Türkiye Girişimcilik Stratejisi ve Eylem Planı (2015). 16.08.2015. Erişim tarihi 15.05.2016. http://www.sp.gov.tr/upload/xSPTemelBelge/files/n4JRw+GISEP_2015-2018_.pdf

Grilo, I., & Irigoyen, J. M. (2006). Entrepreneurship in the EU: to wish and not to be. Small business economics, 26(4), 305-318.

Grimm, H. M. (2011). The lisbon agenda and entrepreneurship policy: Governance implications from a german perspective. Public administration, 89(4), 1526-1545.

Haltiwanger, J., Jarmin, R., Miranda.J. (2009). “Jobs Created from Business Startups in the United States,” Kauffman Foundation

Hause, J. C. & Du Rietz, G. (1984). “Entry, industry growth, and the microdynamics of industry supply.” Journal of Political Economy, 92.

Hisrich, Peters, M. P. (1998), Entrepreneurship, Irwin Mc Graw Hill.

Johnson, S., McMillan, J., Woodruff, C. (2000). “Entrepreneurs and the Ordering of Institutional Reform: Poland, Slovakia, Romania, Russia and Ukraine Compared,” Economics of Transition 81:1

Klapper, L., Meunier, F. & Diniz, L. (2014). Entrepreneurship around the World—Before, During, and After the Crisis, IFC Smartlesson Publications.

Klapper, L. & Love, I. (2011). The impact of business environment reforms on new firm registration. Available at SSRN 1786802.

Klapper, L., & Love, I. (2010). The impact of business environment reforms on new firm registration. World Bank policy research working paper, 5493.

Lingelbach, D., L., De la Vina, Asel P. (2005). “What‟s Distinctive about Growth-Oriented Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries?” Center for Global Entrepreneurship Working Paper, UTSA College of Business.

Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of management Review, 21(1), 135-172.

Lundström, A. and Stevenson, L. A. (2005) “Entrepreneurship Policy: Theory and Practice”, New York: Springer

McCann, P., & Ortega-Argilés, R. (2016). Smart specialisation, entrepreneurship and SMEs: issues and challenges for a results-oriented EU regional policy. Small Business Economics, 46(4), 537-552.

McMillan, J., Woodruff, C. (2002). “The Central Role of Entrepreneurs in Transition Economies,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16 (3).

Minniti, M. (2008). The role of government policy on entrepreneurial activity: productive, unproductive, or destructive?. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(5), 779-790.

Monitor, Global Entrepreneurship. "GEM. 2014." URL: http://www. gsom. spbu. ru/files/upload/research/gem/gem_full_13. pdf (date accessed: 01.09. 2014) (2014).

Naktiyok, Atılhan; (2004), İç Girişimcilik, Beta Yayınları, İstanbul.

Naude, W. (2008). “Entrepreneurship in Economic Development”, UNU World Institute for Development Economics Research, Research Paper No. 2008/20.

North, D.C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

OECD. (2006). Understanding Entrepreneurship: Developing Indicators for International Comparisons and Assessments. Statistics Directorate Committee on Statistics, May.

OECD-Eurostat. (2007). Eurostat-OECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics.OECD, Paris.

OECD. (2012). Entrepreneurship at a Glance, http://www.oecd-ilibrary. org/docserver / download /3012011ec 017.pdf?expires=1355598758&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=C9FCC7CB700D19434CB2F79171A09B41, erişim tarihi, 10.06.2016.

Özdevecioğlu, M., & Cingöz, A. (2009). Sosyal Girişimcilik ve Sosyal Girişimciler: Teorik Çerçeve. Erciyes Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, (32), 81-95.

Rarick, C. A., & Han, T. (2014, July). The Role of Culture in Shaping an Entrepreneurial Mindset. In Allied Academies International Conference. Academy of Entrepreneurship. Proceedings (Vol. 20, No. 2, p. 18). Jordan Whitney Enterprises, Inc.

Reynolds, P., Bosma, N., Autio, E., Hunt, S., De Bono, N., Servais, I., ... & Chin, N. (2005). Global entrepreneurship monitor: Data collection design and implementation 1998–2003. Small business economics, 24(3), 205-231.

Reynolds, P., Bygrave, W. D., Autio, E., & Hay, M. (2002). Global entrepreneurship monitor: 2002 executive monitor. London Business School, London.

Schramm, C.J. (2004). “Building Entrepreneurial Economies”, Foreign Affairs, 83

Schumpeter, J.A. (1934). The theory of economic development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of management review, 25(1), 217-226.

Smallbone, D., Welter, F. & Ateljevic, J. (2013). Entrepreneurship in emerging market economies: Contemporary issues and perspectives. International Small Business Journal, 0266242613511479.

Szabo, Z. K., & Herman, E. (2014). Productive entrepreneurship in the EU and its barriers in transition economies: A cluster analysis. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 11(6), 73-94.

Szerb, L. A., Acs, Z., & Autio, E. (2013). Entrepreneurship and policy: The national system of entrepreneurship in the European Union and in its member countries. Entrepreneurship research journal, 3(1), 9-34.

T.C. Kalkınma Bakanlığı. (2016). 10. Kalkınma Planı, http://www.kalkinma.gov.tr /Lists/ Kalknma%20 Planlar/ Attachments/12/Onuncu%20Kalkınma%20Planı.pdf

U.S. Department of State publication, (2008), Principles of Entrepreneurship, http://iipdigital. Usembassy.gov/st/english/publication/2008/06/20080603235710eaifas2.015322e02.html#axzz4DPA6XLg


Tam Metin: PDF PDF

Refback'ler

  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.